Monday, 6 October 2008
George R. Brown Convention Center, Exhibit Hall E
Incorporating applied P sources can reduce P runoff losses and is a recommended best management practice. However in soils with low P retention capacities, leaching can be a major mechanism for off-site P loss, and the P-source application method (surface or incorporation) may not significantly affect the total amount of off-site P loss. We utilized simulated rainfall protocols to investigate effects of P-source characteristics and application methods on the forms and amounts of P losses from six P sources, including five biosolids materials produced and/or marketed in
, and one inorganic fertilizer (triple superphosphate). A typical Florida Spodosol (Immokalee fine sand, sandy siliceous hyperthermic Arenic Alaquods) was used for the study, to which the P sources were each applied at a rate of 224 kg P ha-1 (approximately the P rate associated with N-based biosolids applications). The P sources were either surface applied to the soil or incorporated into the soil to a depth of 5 cm. Amended soils were subjected to three simulated rainfall events, at one-day intervals. Runoff and leachate were collected after each rainfall event and analyzed for P losses in the form of soluble reactive P (SRP), total dissolved P (TDP), total P (TP), and bioavailable P (BAP) (in runoff only). Cumulative masses (runoff+leachate for the three rainfall events) of P losses from all the P sources were similar, whether the amendments were surface applied or incorporated into the soil. The solubility of the amendment, rather than application method, largely determines the P loss potential in poorly P-sorbing Florida Spodosols.